So, just in case I haven’t been controversial enough,  I thought I’d write a little about Mary!

Our love for Mary is so often misunderstood by non-Catholics. I’m constantly being asked, “Why do you worship Mary?” or other questions of the sort. So, to set the record straight – We don’t. Keep reading and I’ll explain what we really do.

(These thoughts are from my notes on a lecture by Dr. Mark Mirivalli at the Defending the Faith Summer Conference 2007 at Steubenville University in Steubenville, Ohio.)

First of all.

WHO is Mary? Specifically, WHO is she to each member of the Trinity? Let’s take a look.

What would God the Father call her? Maybe:

 “My masterpiece,” “My favored daughter,” “My joy,” and “My perfect creation.”

He chose her to be the vessel in which our Saviour would become incarnate. He chose her to nurture and to raise the Messiah. She is blessed beyond compare, and therefore He is protective of her.

When the angel Gabriel addresses Mary he says, “Hail Mary, Full of Grace.”

But, what does it mean to be “full of grace?” To Catholics, “full of grace,” can mean nothing else but, “empty of sin.” If she IS full of grace (or empty of sin), then she is God’s greatest creation (Since Christ, our Saviour, is not a creation of God, but one with God.) If she is God’s greatest and purest creation, then wouldn’t it make sense for God to use her to be the vessel for the Word made flesh? And if He had the choice (which He always does, because He is God and can do all things) then why wouldn’t He? How could a person with the stain of sin on her soul carry the fullness of God Himself in her womb?

In the Baltimore Catechism, Grace is defined as a “supernatural gift of God bestowed on us through the merits of Jesus Christ.” Mary did indeed need redemption, but she was redeemed by God with Jesus’ blood before she was conceived. Mary was created by God specifically to be the mother of Christ. God created her knowing that she would say, “Yes.” So, Mary is Full of Grace and without sin not because she has her own righteousness, but because God made her that way. Her total “yes” to God’s will for her completed his plan for her to bear his son. This is possible because God is completely outside of time. Since He is the beginning AND the end He was able to make Mary righteous before the coming of Christ.

God the Son, Christ our Savior might call her:

“My mother,” “My flesh,” “My nurturer.”

A love between child and parent is indescribable. Any mother will tell you that. No matter how much we are at each other’s throats, the love present cannot be dissolved. It is unconditional to the core.

Scripture says, “When Jesus saw His mother and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby He said to His mother, ‘Woman, behold, your son!’ Then He said to the disciple, ‘Behold, your mother!’ And from that hour the disciple took her to his home.”

This passage tells us that Christ delights in our love for Mary. He has given her to us and He loves to see us love her, and our love for her pleases Him. At that moment, He told us that she is not only His mother, she is mother to each of us and we should take her into our own homes. She is there to comfort us as a mother does, to love us as a mother does, and to serve us as a mother does. Her relationship with Christ incarnate is far beyond what any of us can imagine. Think about it for a moment. She cooked His meals and made His clothes and she tucked Him in at night! He ran to her when He scraped his knee!  Isn’t that crazy!? She was a model servant and friend. And she is available to us today.

God the Holy Spirit might describe her as:

“My spouse,” “My human advocate.”

Together with the Holy Spirit they will prepare for the second coming. Mary will nurture as the Spirit lives within us. The Holy Spirit works through Mary as He once worked inside of her.

Isn’t it somewhat awe-inspiring to think about this? The immense love of Father and Son that creates Spirit and becomes the Trinity. And then – the immense love that the Blessed Trinity must have for Mary who said “Yes” to God’s call and became the vessel for the Incarnate Lord! This concept, this love, this master plan is awesome in the truest sense of the word! And the more we stand in awe – the more we grow in reverence.

Now that we’ve covered some basic reasons WHY the Catholic Church honors Mary, lets take a closer look at exactly WHAT the Church holds true about the Blessed Mother.

It is important first to establish that when Catholics “pray” to Mary, we do not worship her. We venerate her and we acknowledge her as a role model, as our mother, and as our queen. We do not worship her.

To “pray” means “to ask”. We ask Mary to pray for us, just as we ask each others to pray for us. Mary, the Saint’s, and all our loved ones who have gone before us live in heaven. They are sharing in eternal glory and join with us to make a great communion. I ask Mary, or St. Benedict, or St. Cecilia to pray for me in the same way I ask my earthly mother, or my earthly brother, or my earthly friend to pray for me. We are all God’s children and it is good for us to pray for one another.

Mary is the closest person to Christ – She knew Him better than anyone else did and He prepared a seat for her at His right hand in Heaven. We ask Her to pray for us not only because she is part of that great communion of saints, but because Christ loves her and she loves Christ. Of course Christ rules over her as He rules over us, but He has a special respect for her opinion – it was Mary who convinced Christ to work His first Miracle at the Wedding at Cana wasn’t it?

The Church accepts, as Doctrine, that Mary is the Spiritual Mother of all humanity. This is why Jesus gave His mother to the apostle at the foot of the cross. Mary was His final gift to His people. The statement “Behold, your mother.” is considered a theological statement and a fact.

She is the Spiritual Mother of all humanity in 3 ways:

1) She suffers for her children – Mary shared in Christ’s suffering. Any mother who has watched her child suffer can catch a glimpse at Mary’s pain as she saw her son crucified. Her deep love for Christ made her suffer with Him.

2) She is a mother nourishing – She is a mediatric of grace and works with the Holy Spirit to pour grace upon her children.

3) She is a mother pleading – Mary intercedes for us. She is our Queen and will ask Jesus to give us the desires of our hearts.  

The Church has also spoken 4 Dogmas concerning Mary. (Dogma is established by Papal authority or an ecumenical council.)

1) Council of Ephesus (431) – “Mary is the mother of God made Man.”

This was specifically discussed to protect the teaching of the Church from the Nostorian heresy that made God and Jesus two separate persons. It established that *Jesus is God and *Mary is the mother of Jesus and therefore *Mary is the mother of God.

2) Lateran Council (649) – Perpetual Virginity of Mary before/during/after the birth of Jesus.

Before the birth of Jesus: The council highlights the prophet Isaiah in 7:14.

During her pregnancy: The council resolved that as Mary carried Jesus in her womb there was no damage – it was as though light passes through glass.

After the birth of Jesus: The council stated that those whom Christ calls “brothers” were not biological brothers, but close relatives or friends.

3) Pius IX (December 8, 1854) – Infallible statement on Immaculate Conception

This statement (remember infallible statements are rare and only acknowledged as such under specific criteria) defined the feast of the Immaculate Conception as the celebration of Mary being conceived without original sin (not Jesus, as is often misunderstood). It resolved that Mary was full, completely, of grace and defined her as the only creature ever fully perfected (by God!) in grace.

(Remember that Mary’s sinlessness what not considered divinity, but rather a complete outpouring of God’s Grace. Mary is perfected in the Grace of God, but only Jesus Christ is divine.)

4) Pius XII (December 1, 1950) – Infallible Statement on the Assumption

This statement resolved that Mary was assumed into heaven, fully in body.

(This teaching suggests, though it is not written as dogma, that Mary experienced limited separation of body and soul for 3 days as an act of discipleship.)

This is a somewhat poorly organized and skeletal outline of the Catholic Church’s teaching on the Blessed Mother. If you aren’t Catholic please don’t be insulted or angered by this position, but feel free to question or share your thoughts. I hope that this is indeed in line with the Churchs teaching.

I receive questions about Mary all the time, and I often feel terribly inarticulate when trying to explain. All I really can say is that I have a deep love for the Blessed Mother and I thank God for sending her as a role model and Spiritual Mother.

Please comment! Let’s discuss!

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So… it’s after Lent and this question most definately won’t come up for another year…. but we had a great speaker at Newman Club in the Spring, and I wanted to write it down before I forget. Its also possible I’ll mess up what he said, but oh well, it’s worth a shot!

 

As always with these posts I’m not trying to be aggressive or anything, I’m simply trying to help others (as well as myself) understand the Catholic faith Tradition, and seek to promote understanding and respect. And since I get questions all the time, and answer pretty inadequately, I try to come back with more complete answers.

 

So, Why do Catholics eat fish on fridays in Lent?

 

Common answers might be:

  • Because the church tells me too.
  • It’s something else to sacrifice.
  • I don’t know, but I do it anyway.

 

But, lets take a deeper look into this.

 

Christ came to earth as a human. The word for this is the “Incarnation” The root of this word, carn, is the latin word for BOTH flesh and meat. During the prepatory time of Lent, we try to deny the flesh and seek God more fully. Therefore, by abstaining from meat on fridays, we are denying the flesh as Christ did in His death and resurrection.

 

Then, why do we eat fish instead?

 

Ichthus is the Greek word for fish. It is an acronym, formed from the initial letters of the Greek words Ièsous Christos Theou ‘Uios Sotèr, which means: Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior.

 

  Ièsous                              Jesus

 

  Christos                           Christ

 

  Theou                              God

 

  Uios                                  Son

 

  Sotèr                                Savior

 

The Ichthus sign was used as a “secret” form of communication between the persecuted believers of the early church. The symbol was often drawn with the foot in the sand to help Christians identify each other.

 

So, while we are denying the flesh or “carn” by abstaining from meat on fridays during lent, we eat fish to symbolize our acceptance of “Jesus Christ, God, Son, Savior”

Why do Catholics go to Confession? Shouldn’t we just confess our sin to God? Who is the priest that I should tell him my sins?

 

Well…. I’m going to make an attempt to explain it as I understand it. As with all these issues, I know I don’t have all the answers. I just do my best to understand. I don’t mean to be an overly aggressive Catholic on a Protestant campus, but it’s important that the explanations get out there. I can’t promise it’ll be articulate, but here it goes. (Oh, and special thanks to Kate Stieber for bringing this to mind!)

 

In John 20: 21-23, Christ gives instruction regarding confession of sins when He appeared to the Twelve after His resurrection. He said to them,

 

“Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, so I send you.” And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the holy Spirit. Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them, and whose sins you retain are retained.”

When Jesus gives His disciples the Holy Spirit, He actually ordains them as His representatives on earth. This could also be considered the institution of the sacrament of Holy Orders. Jesus gives His disciples their job in spreading the Kingdom and instructs them as to what that job entails. One aspect of this job is the forgiveness of sins… entirely through the Grace of the Holy Spirit.

 

 

Scripture says,

 

 “Whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven”

 

In Matthew 16:19, Christ gives Peter the “keys” to the Kingdom of Heaven and He gives the same instruction to the rest of the apostles later in Matthew. Jesus gave the apostles the Holy Spirit as the source of their authority to forgive sins in Jesus name. It is true that Jesus commanded all of His followers to forgive one another when someone sinned against them but Jesus gave the apostles a special authority to “bind and loose” or forgive anyone’s sins in God’s name.

 

Understanding Apostolic Succession is the key to fully understanding the priest’s role who acts in “Persona Christi” or the person of Christ. The Catholic Church teaches that priests and deacons are offered sufficient grace to become Christ’s representative on earth in their role as priest or deacon. Therefore, when we confess our sins in the confessional, we are confessing to God and acknowledging the truth of the incarnation. There, we recognize the realness of Christ’s humanity and humble ourselves in the presence of God. This “ordination” is also involved in how we approach the consecration of the Eucharist (as well as the other sacraments). In the Consecration of the Eucharist, God sends His Holy Spirit to work through the priest, who He has chosen and ordained.

 

When asked about confession, the first reference that came to mind was James 5:16:

 

”Therefore, confess your sins to one another and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The fervent prayer of a righteous person is very powerful.”

The act of confession is humbling to us because in confession we are forced to admit our sins and recognize God’s saving power.

 

Theologian Dr. Alan Shreck put it like this,

 

 “Some questions about the sacrament of reconciliation frequently arise. One is simply, why is this sacrament necessary? Why not confess your sins directly to God? Why go to a priest or any human being?….. Certainly it is appropriate and even necessary to repent directly before God for one’s sins. In fact, when Catholics participate in this sacrament they are primarily expressing their repentance and sorrow for sin to God and seeking to be reconciled to Him. However, Catholics believe that Jesus had a purpose in granting particular persons the authority to forgive sins in Gods name… First, it is another aspect of God’s “incarnational” way of relating to mankind; using human beings to continue His work on earth is part of the way God works. When our sins are forgiven by one who has been set apart by the church to represent Jesus Christ, we can experience the mercy of Jesus through that person…. Secondly, confessing sins to a person reminds us of the social dimension of sin. When someone sins, he not only offends God, but his sin also has an effect, either direct or indirect, on other people. The priest who grants God’s forgiveness not only represents Jesus Christ but also the whole Christian community, the church. Hence, the priest also has the authority to reconcile the sinner to the body of Christ, the church….Thirdly, the priest or minister is often able to counsel and encourage the penitent, or even pray with the penitent for healing of some area of sin or brokenness in the person’s life. Jesus often uses His representative, the priest, to minister to the needs of people in remarkable ways through the sacrament of reconciliation”

 

I hope this is somewhat coherent!

 

I encourage comments! Loving dialogue is good! 🙂

So, I’m aware of the controversy that will be raised by this post, and perhaps some that will come after it. But please remember that I mean to eliminate misunderstanding and prejudice between faiths, as well as to share with you the faith that I love so much. I ask that you respect my (our) beliefs and work towards understanding so that there may be unity among Christians – How Christ must mourn at the division of His Kingdom.

 

In the Roman Catholic Mass it is Christ’s real presence is in the Eucharist. This belief has it’s roots in John Chapter 6, with The Bread of Life Discourse. The key verses begin with John 6:27.

 

Christ says, “Do not work for food that perishes, but for the FOOD that ENDURES for eternal Life.”

 

Later, in 6:32 He says, “…”My father gives you the TRUE bread from heaven.”

 

When the apostles murmur and question his claim, Jesus tells them again that He is the Bread of Life. In verses 47-51 He tells them how the manna that their ancestors ate was not true bread, and therefore they died, but that He is the Bread of Life, and we will be given eternal life through Him alone. This tells us that the manna given in the desert is inferior to the food of Christ. How remarkable since the manna was already supernatural/ heavenly/ miraculous! Christ is saying that He is the Bread of Life that is perfect, whole, and life-giving. This is just one part of the Gospel that explicitly describes Christ’s true presence in the Eucharist. 

 

These claims build to a moment when many of His disciples question and turn away. (Imagine how confusing it must have been to hear their teacher telling them to eat him!) When this happens Jesus doesn’t back down or change his wording, instead, he continues and says,

 

“…Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, you shall not have life within you.” (6:53)

 

This is the first time Jesus addresses this concept of salvation linked with the Eucharist. In the Greek translation, the word he uses is the generic word for “eat” (phago). But in 6:54-58, He says again,

 

“Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him on the last day. For my flesh is TRUE food, and my blood is TRUE drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him. Just as the of the Father, so also the one who feeds on me will have life because of me” (6:54-58 ).

 

Here, when He repeats it His claim, He uses the word trogo. Trogo is a more graphic and particular word for eat. It means literally, “to gnaw” or “to chew.” So, instead of softening His rhetoric, Christ actually makes His words more deliberate – stressing the literal meaning of His claim.

 

St. Paul echoes Jesus’ claim in 1 Corinthians 11:27-30,

 

“Therefore, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord unworthily will have to answer for the body and the blood of the Lord.”

 

If these words meant that His flesh was a symbol of true food, and His blood, a symbol of true drink, than Christ most likely would have cleared things up with His disciples before they walked away. In other instances throughout the New Testament (Nicodemus in John 3:1-15 and with the Leaven of the Pharisees in Matthew 16:5-12) Christ’s disciples misunderstood so Christ cleared up misunderstanding, but this time He didn’t. If these words meant that His flesh was a merely a symbol of true food, and His blood, merely a symbol of true drink, than why does Paul put such an emphasis on their importance? We can see that Christ meant what He said in a very literal sense. He is telling us that Bread and Wine will be a new form of revelation to His people. This form celebrates both His incarnation and His sacrifice.

 

In the midst of the confusion the Lord asks the apostles why they have not left. The apostles respond, “Lord, to whom can we go?” Their faith was undying and they did not question the words Jesus was telling them.

 

A common misconception about the Catholic teaching on Eucharist is that we believe that Christ is sacrificed repeatedly, week after week, day after day – but that is not the case. The Catholic Church teaches that Christ’s sacrifice happened once and for all, just as is stated in Scripture. The difference lies in Christ’s role in our remembrance of His death and resurrection. In the Catholic Tradition, that role is revealed in the consececration and transformation of bread and wine into His own body and blood, shed for His people. He is the Paschal Lamb. We take the ultimate sacrifice into our own bodies and souls, just as the Jewish people took the Passover lamb into their own bodies. (The Passover Story closely parallel’s Christ’s Passion)

 

It is also important to notice that the word “Eucharist” literally means thanksgiving, and therefore the act of receiving the Eucharist is in praise and thanksgiving for his death and resurrection. When we receive the Eucharist, we are celebrating the Christ’s sacrifice when he offered his life to save us.

 

The Catechism of the Catholic Church talks of The Sacramental Sacrifice: Thanksgiving, Memorial, and Presence. In statement 1360 it says, “The Eucharist is a sacrifice of thanksgiving to the Father, a blessing by which the Church expresses her gratitude to God for all his benefits, for all that he has accomplished through CREATION, REDEMPTION, and SANCTIFICATION.”

 

Therefore, the church does not teach Justification through the Eucharist, but in fact, Justification by Grace – through which we have Faith. Faith in Jesus Christ as our Savior who made the ultimate sacrifice. I think its often thought that Catholics think that if one doesn’t believe in the presence of the Eucharist than one is not “saved”, but that’s not true. Who are we humans to condemn others? Naturally, Catholics do believe that we have been given the gift of the fullness of faith (included in our understanding of Christ’s presence in the Eucharist), but who doesn’t believe that their own faith and understanding is the truth? True faith in Jesus Christ as our Savior and Redeemer is where justification and salvation comes in – but only by the means of Grace. The Eucharist is then God’s gift to us to help us understand Christ’s sacrifice and saving act. Faith is given to us by the Grace of God, and that Grace overflows in to all areas of our lives. If our Faith is strong, than why would we question God’s power to turn bread and wine into the body and blood of our savior? Why would we question the Holy Spirit’s role in the consecration of the elements? Isn’t it with God that all things are possible? With True Faith is there ever room for doubt?

 

When we take part in the Sacraments (there are 7 in the Catholic Church) we open ourselves to be recipients of God’s Grace. In the Catholic Church, a Sacrament is defined as, “an outward sign, instituted by Christ, to give grace.” The Eucharist is a Sacrament because it allows us to open ourselves wide to receive the outpouring of God’s grace in the form of bread and wine, that has become the Body and Blood of our Lord, Jesus Christ. This is why the Eucharist is important – it is another avenue, another available moment, and another means to grow closer to God.

 

Karl Adam, a German Catholic theologian, described Transubstantiation like this…

 
“So completely does Jesus disclose Himself to His disciples that he gives Himself to them and enters into them as a personal source of grace. Jesus shares with His disciples His most intimate possession, the most precious thing that He has, His own self. So greatly does Jesus love his community that He permeates it with His real self, God and Man. He enters into a real union of flesh and blood with it, and binds it to His being even as the branch is bound to the vine.”